criteria for choosing the type of tool steel AND TOOL STEEL GROUPS:
- requirement for sharp cutting.
- should the instrument be capable of withstanding shock loads
- should it be resistant to abrasive wear out
- what kind of thermal processing is required
WATER-HARDENING TOOL STEELS
Steels with high content of carbon and water tempered. This process could lead to increased possibility of cracking and deforming of the steel part. Steel processed in this manner is suitable for production of small elements, and can be used at temperatures not more than 150° C. Water hardened steel becomes soft at higher temperatures.
cold-work tool steels
AIR HARDENING STEEL
Universal group of tool steels characterized by increased chromium content which results in low possibility of bending or cracking during thermal processing. These grades are good for machine treatment and feature good balance between wear resistance and toughness.
OIL HARDENING TOOL STEEL /O GRADES/
Used in the production of knives and forks. They can be tempered up to a hardness of 57-61HRC.
STEELS WITH HIGH CHROMIUM AND CARBON CONTENT:
Type D with chromium content between 10 and 13% with stable hardness at temperatures of up to 425° C. Thus, they are used for the production of forging dies, molds for diecasting, and molds for deep drawing. Due to its high chromium content, this type of tool steelis often is regarded as stainless steel although its corrosion resistance is quite limited.
Type 1,2767, also known as X45NiCrMo4. This steel is air cooled and nickel is the main alloying element. This type of steel has good resistance and stable grains, and it provides good conditions for polishing. It is used for the manufacturing of injection mold tools subjected to high stress. It can be used for industrial blades, circular saws, forging and cutting dies.
HIGH SPEED TOOL STEELS (HSS OR HS)
These are often used for production of power-saw blades and drill bits. They can withstand high tempreratures without losing temper, thus cut faster than the high carbon steel. Although, they possess high strenght and hardness, their tougness is lower than the one of cold work tool steel.
|M1, M7, M10
|M30, M33, M34, М42, M43, M46, M47
||Cobalt and molybdenum content
|М2, M3, M4
||Molybdenum and tungsten content
|M6, M15, М35, M36< M41, M44, M45
||Molybdenum, cobalt and tungsten content
|Т1, Т2, T3, T7, T9
|Т4, Т5, Т6, T8, T15
||Tungsten and cobalt content
HOT WORK TOOL STEELS - H GROUP
This type of steel is designed to maintain its hardness and durability during the continuous increase of the processing temperature. They are low on carbon and alloys, but have high content of carbide which provides the steel with good hardness and wear resistance when heated. Types H1 through H19 are based on chromium content of 5%, and H20 through H39 are dependent on the content of tungsten ranging from 9 up to 18%.
SPECIAL PURPOSE/PLASTIC MOLD TOOL STEELS
Used for plastic injection molds - /Type P/– this metallurgically clean steel has high content of alloys melted at relatively low temperatures in electric furnaces where its homogeneity is closely monitored. It is always thermally treated.
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